In recent years, cross-border activities in health care have become increasingly important. An example is represented by parallel imports of pharmaceuticals, i.e. pharmaceuticals that are (re-)imported from abroad without the permission of their producers, thus increasing competition for the pharmaceuticals sold directly at home. Furthermore, many countries relate their pricing regulation of pharmaceuticals to the pricing regulation of other countries. Last, but not least, the mobility of patients has increased considerably over the last years, meaning that many patients use health care from abroad. With respect to parallel imports, there exist already some studies in the economic literature. However, many important aspects of parallel imports have not yet been discussed in the literature, for instance, the possible failure of coordinating the policies of different countries or the mobility und multi-nationality of pharmaceutical firms. Moreover, the analysis of decentralized pricing regulation for pharmaceuticals is, to the best of our knowledge, perfectly absent. Finally, studies that investigate the implications of patient mobility are rare. We will use theoretical as well as econometric models to investigate the implications of cross-border health activities for consumer policies and their welfare consequences. In doing so, we will inter alia make use of the literature on tax competition.